Approved Abstracts

Risk assessment of cancer increment for populations exposed to environmental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from different routes around the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil.



Author(s): Tavares TM; Lockwood D; Oliva ST; Silva SMT; Sant’Anna Júnior N; Arciniegas CLW; Nardocci AC;
Presenter: Tania Mascarenhas Tavares

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that are usually emitted by combustion processes. Petroleum-related and industrial activities are the main sources of environmental emissions of PAHs via atmospheric emissions, liquid effluent, spills, and solid waste. The main health concern is cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk due to PAH exposure from ambient airborne particulate matter, drinking water, and edible mollusks at different locations of various cities with and without the influence of oil processing or industrial activity in the region around the Todos os Santos Bay (approximately 1,200 km2) and the Salvador metropolitan area, with different routes of exposure: oil refinery and petroleum operations, industrial emissions, port activities, urban occupation, and background Atlantic air masses as reference areas. PAH measurements in the different environmental compartments were made at different times during the last three decades by the same group and same analytical methodology (CG/MS/MS), deriving average concentrations of lifetime exposure. The methodology used for the probabilistic assessment was the Monte Carlo method via the software Oracle Crystal Ball. The model was fed with average values and corresponding standard deviations following the exposure factor of USEPA. The evaluation considered only the eight PAHs classified by EPA as probable or possible carcinogenic compounds. The Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEF) used were developed by the Office of Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) of the government of California, USA. The results of 10,000 simulations for a 70-year lifetime (95th percentile) showed a higher incremental lifetime cancer risk in Caípe, a district very close to the oil refinery, with a risk of 1.3 x 10-3, which corresponds to between one and two additional individuals with cancer in a population of 1,000, an unacceptably high risk under WHO, European and Brazilian adopted values; Maré Island, downwind from an industrial center but also under the influence of the oil refinery showed a risk increase of 9.4 x 10-4, São Francisco do Conde and Madre de Deus, both cities under the influence of oil processing, presented risks increments of 3.0 x 10-4 and 1.6 x10-4 respectively, all values above the maximum acceptable. At these locations, the risk is due to the consumption of mollusks from the local area. For the cities where mollusk data was not collected, Candeias City had the highest incremental lifetime cancer risk, 5.2 x 10-5, due to the high concentration of PAHs in the airborne particulate matter. Acceptable incremental cancer risks were found in Jabequara Village (6.5 x 10-6), Saubara City (1.5 x 10-6), Baiacu Town (7.2 x 10-7), and Salvador (4.9 x 10-7) - the capital of the State of Bahia, with over 2 million people. Background areas and respective risks were Praia do Forte (2.3 x 10-6) and Arembepe (7.8 x 10-9). The estimates for incremental cancer risk due to PAH exposure for the mollusk-consuming populations to the north and the northeast of the Todos os Santos Bay call for the attention of health and environmental regulatory agencies. assessment

Keywords: Human health ; Probabilistic risk assessment; environmental pathway

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