Approved Abstracts

Assessing the ecotoxicological impacts of the Fundão dam failure in freshwater fish community: metals bioaccumulation and multi-biomarkers responses

Author(s): VIEIRA CED; Marques JA; Silva NG; Bevitório LZ; Zebral YD; Maraschi AC; Costa SR; Damasceno EM; Pirovani JCM; Vale-Oliveira; Souza MM; Martins CMG; Bianchini A; Sandrini JZ;

This study investigates the ecotoxicological impacts of the Fundão dam rupture, one of the major environmental impacts that occurred in Brazil and in the world mining industry history, through multi-biomarkers responses and metals bioaccumulation in the fish community of different trophic levels. Specimens of the fishes (omnivorous/herbivorous and carnivorous) were collected along the Doce River channel and its affluent Guandú River, and in different lakes and coastal lagoons adjacent to the river channel, in the Espirito Santo State, Southeast of Brazil. Four sampling collections were carried out over two years (2018 to 2020, during dry and rainy seasons). For both trophic groups of fish´s the biomarkers responses indicated physiological stress related to metals exposure and showed strong seasonal variations. The principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response index showed that DNA damages and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were more associated with dry season 2 (Sep/Oct 2019) and the oxidative damages in proteins (PCO), metallothioneins (MT) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gills showed a greater association with rainy season 2 (Jan/Feb 2020). On the other hand, the enzymes of energy metabolism, catalase (CAT) and histological damages in the liver and the gills, were more associated with the dry and rainy campaigns of the first year of monitoring. The multivariate approach also suggested a temporal intensification in the bioaccumulation of metals and biological effects in the lacustrine environments. Thus, these results demonstrate that the release of mineral residues from the rupture of the Fundão mine dam affects the health status of the fishes from the Doce River basin, provoking metals bioaccumulation, hepatic and branchial damages in the fish besides inducing of the proteins and enzymes related to metal contamination, even four years after the disaster.
Financial Support: The present study was carried out as part of the Aquatic Biodiversity Monitoring Program -PMBA, established by the Technical-Scientific Agreement (001/2018) between UFES-FEST-Renova Foundation.

Keywords: biomonitoring; Doce river; metal toxicity




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