Approved Abstracts

EXPOSURE TO FLUORIDE DURING THE INTRAUTERINE AND LACTATION PERIOD PROMOTES CHANGES IN THE OFFSPRING‘S ALVEOLAR BONE



Author(s): Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Universidade Federal do Pará; Universidade Nova de Lisboa; Universidade Federal do Pará;
Presenter: Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt

The importance of Fluoride (F) use to oral health is well established in the literature. However, evidence suggest that excessive exposure to this mineral is associated with adverse effects in different life phases and may affect many biological systems, mainly mineralized tissues. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) exposure during the gestational and lactation periods on the offspring’s alveolar bone, a special bone tissue essential to tooth sustenance. For this, the mothers were randomized into 3 groups: G0 (control), which received ultrapure water, G10 – 10 mg F/L and G50 – 50 mg F/L during 42 days (21 gestational days and 21 lactation days). These doses, 10 mg F/L and 50 mg F/L, are equivalent to the artificially fluoridated water consumption and endemic fluorosis regions, respectively, considering the rodents’ metabolism. On the D22 of life, after the offspring’s weaning, the euthanasia was made with further hemimandible resection to the following analysis: F levels quantification on the alveolar bone using Particle-induced gamma emission (PIGE); study of the organic and inorganic components through Raman spectroscopy investigating the phosphate (960 cm-1), carbonate (1070 cm-1) and Amide I (1660/1690 cm-1) bands with analysis of the mineral crystallinity and collagen maturity as an indicator of chemical-structural alterations; and computerized microtomography assessing the alveolar bone microarchitecture based on thickness, separation, and trabeculae number as well as measuring of the bone volume and alveolar bone vertical dimensions in tridimensional reconstructions. Furthermore, other hemimandibles were designed for histological analysis to collagen quantification using polarized light microscopy. The data normality was assessed by the Shapiro–Wilk test and the normal data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey‘s test. The significance level adopted was p<0.05. After indirect exposure, during the intrauterine and breastfeeding period, higher levels of F were observed in the alveolar bone of both groups. Alterations on chemical components on the animals’ bone were also observed: crystallinity mineral reduction, carbonate substitution increase and collagen maturity reduction in the G50 animals (p<0.001) suggesting a modulation on the alveolar bone physical-chemical composition. On the microstructure analysis, reduced thickness, and trabecular number were evidenced in the G10 and G50 groups (p<0.001) resulting in vertical dimensions’ loss on the alveolar bone of the G10 and G50 groups when compared to G0 (p<0.001). Additionally, the organic bone matrix content was affected in other analyses, mainly collagen type I. In an unprecedented way, our results revealed the NaF involvement during the intrauterine and lactation period on the promotion of physical-chemical, microstructural and vertical dimensions’ alteration on the offspring’s alveolar bone. Our findings evidenced that the exposure/ingestion of over-recommended fluoride levels, as the 50 mg F/L dose, may promote changes in the alveolar bone tissue during the first years of life. This study was financed in part by the Programa Nacional de Cooperação Acadêmica na Amazônia – PROCAD/Amazônia from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - This research was also supported by Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa da UFPA (PROPESP, UFPA, Brazil) and Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).

Keywords: Fluoride; Alveolar Bone; Bone Toxicology

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