Approved Abstracts

Chronic ecotoxicological effects of selected pharmaceuticals on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphia similis cladoceran



Author(s): Tominaga FK; Garcia VSG; Boiani NF; Silva TT; Borrely SI;
Presenter: Flavio Kiyoshi Tominaga

Nowadays the occurrence of pharmaceuticals associated to the risk of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the environment is a relevant concern. Contamination of environment with multiclass residues containing API, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, psychiatrics, antidiabetics, and antibiotics has been described at several aquatic environments. Their residual concentration achieves from ng L-1 to µg L-1 with potential to cause biological effects to nontarget organisms. The relative lack of chronic toxicity data compromises the establishment of water quality criteria for mitigation strategies. This work aims at assessement of chronic effects (survival, reproduction and growth) of four selected pharmaceuticals to cladoceran Daphnia similis. Pure standard solutions were studied including: acetylsalicylic acid (>99,5%) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (98,8%), both obtained from Labsynth and Divis Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd, respectively. Metformin hydrochloride (97%) and ciprofloxacin (> 98%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. The 21 days chronic renewable assays were performed following OECD 211. The EC50 values (Half Maximal Effective Concentration) were determined using regression analysis, by applying a three-parameter-logistic-fit (sigmoidal logistic model). The results showed higher toxicity of the antidepressant and lower effects of the anti-inflammatory. The estimated EC5021d were 0.30 mg L-1 for fluoxetine, 0.84 mg L-1 for ciprofloxacin, 2.05 mg L-1 for metformin and 9.62 mg L-1 aspirin. The results showed that no mortality was observed at evaluated concentrations for acetylsalicylic acid (up to 20 mg L-1). However, the number of neonates offspring per individual and the body length of the organisms were significantly reduced from 5.0 mg L-1 of acetylsalicylic acid. For fluoxetine, metformin and ciprofloxacin, the mortality increased, while the number of neonates per individual decreased with increasing concentration. Significantly reduction on the neonate’s number per female was noted from 0.40 mg L-1 for fluoxetine, 0.6 mg L-1 for ciprofloxacin and 2.5 mg L-1 for metformin. Regarding the exposed organism’s growth, the results demonstrated that fluoxetine and metformin did not affect the body length of the exposed organisms when compared to the control (p > 0.05), while for ciprofloxacin, the organisms of all tested concentration showed significative reduction on body size when compared to the control (p > 0.05), indicating sublethal effects. The presented study demonstrated the chronic effects of four pharmaceutical at relatively lower concentration (ranging from µg L-1 to mg L-1). Thus, the extensive production, prescription, and release of pharmaceuticals into the environmental can result in potential long-term ecological risks to aquatic biota. This study was supported by CNPq.

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals; Chronic toxicity; Daphnia similis

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