OCCURRENCE OF MICROPLASTICS IN PACIFIC OYSTERS Crassostrea gigas FROM AQUACULTURE AREAS OF SOUTHERN BRAZIL
Author(s): Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC); Isis M. M. Reis; Cella H; Vanessa S. Deconto; Carlos H. A. M. Gomes; Lígia S. Lanzarin; Brocado GS; Flávia L. Zacchi; Afonso C. D. Bainy;
Presenter: Miguel Angel Saldaña Serrano
Microplastics (MPs) are particles smaller than 5mm that do not degrade rapidly and can be ingested by marine organisms and can also be transferred to higher trophic levels, including humans. Therefore, it is of great importance to monitor the presence and quantities of microplastics in farmed marine bivalves. This study aimed to evaluate the presence, shape, size, and chemical composition of MPs in the oyster Crassostrea gigas in six aquaculture areas, located in the North Bay: Sambaqui (SAM), Sto. Antonio de Lisboa (SAL) and Serraria (SER), and in the South Bay: Caieira (CAI), Imaruim (IMA) and Tapera (TAP) in the Florianópolis coastal area. In February 2020, one day after finishing Brazilian Carnival, when the urban population in this touristic area is practically doubled, 12 oysters were collected at each oyster farm, and they were taken to the laboratory. Then, the biometry was performed and the oysters were dissected and the target tissue was placed in a hydroxide potassium solution (KOH 10%) in a ratio of 1:5 (w/v) for the digestion during 48 hours at 40 °C and shaking at 120 rpm. After this time, two density separations (every 15 minutes) were performed on each sample using hypersaline solution (NaCl; ρ = 1.2 g/cm3). Subsequently, the samples were filtered through a metal manifold system and using glass membrane filters (0.4 µm). Finally, the membranes were analyzed under a fluorescence-stereoscope and transmission electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersion spectrometer (SEM/EDS). Cotton lab coats and nitrile gloves were used, the dissection of the oysters, density separation, and the filtering of the samples were carried out under a laminar flow cabinet within a closed room. All glassware used in the experiment, were previously washed with ultrapure water and dried oven at 200 °C for 24 hours. Ultrapure water was used for the preparation of the solutions and pre-filtered through a cellulose nitrate membrane filter (0.45 µm). Additionally, the KOH and hypersaline solutions were pre-filtered three times through a cellulose nitrate membrane (3 µm) and these membranes were used as procedure blanks. A total of 43 MPs with sizes from 200 to 2000 µm were counted. The farmed areas that presented the highest presence of MPs were SER and SAL (0.75 MPs/oyster) and SAM (0.67 MPs/oyster) results very similar to other studies carried out in France that reported quantities of 0.60 0.56 MPs/oyster. All MPs were fibers, which are likely released into the environment during the laundry process and their small size allows them to pass through wastewater treatment and eventually reach the oceans. Blue was the most common color in fibers due to the fact that it is the most commonly used color in synthetic clothing production, however blue fibers can also come from equipment used in oyster farms. We analyzed the chemical composition of a group of MPs and all showed peaks in the carbon (C) and oxygen (O) molecules, suggesting that it is a polymer. In addition, inorganic molecules were detected such as: Nb, Pb, Ti, Al, Cl and was compared with other studies and four possible types of polymers were found: PVC, PET, PP, and PS. In addition, it was possible to visualize cracks and grooves on the surface of the particles, which are probably due to environmental exposure. These results allowed us to demonstrate the presence of MPs in C. gigas oysters from aquaculture farms. Financial Support: This research was partially funded by the project n°: 305311/2017-4. Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).
Keywords: Microplastics; Ostreiculture; Pacific oyster
Graduada em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade Federal de São Carlos (1985) com mestrado em Ciências (Fisiologia Geral) pela Universidade de São Paulo (1990). Realizou o doutorado no Departamento de Fisiologia Geral do IBUSP e no Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Leicester, Inglaterra e...Saiba mais
2000-Present Professor Aquatic Ecotoxicology, University of California, Riverside, CA USA
1995-1999 Associate Professor Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, MS USA
1991-1995 Assistant professor Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medi...
Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro is a full professor at School of Technology – UNICAMP, Brazil and an adjunct professor at Wilson College of Textiles, NCSU, USA. She graduated in Biology at University of Campinas - UNICAMP (1979), Ph.D. in Genetics also at UNICAMP (1990). Worked for 22 years at the Enviro...Saiba mais
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