Approved Abstracts

Multi-bioassay approach for the assessment of two commercial antifouling coatings on target (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and non-target (Acartia tonsa) marine species



Author(s): MAR SANTOS SIMÓN; TAMER HAFEZ; AGNESE MARCHINI; Nestor Etxebarria; Maren Ortiz Zarragoitia;
Presenter: Mar Santos Simón

With the purpose of avoiding the attachment and growth of biofouling organisms on the hull of vessels, antifouling solutions have been developed, typically based on the use of biocides as components of boat paints. However, although highly effective, there is still a gap of uncertainty regarding their potential indirect effects on the environment and on non-target species. Consequently, new ‘non-toxic’ alternatives are being developed, based on different action mechanisms. The aim of this study is to assess the toxicity and effects of two commercial paints: a biocide-based paint (‘traditional’) and a siloxane-based paint (‘alternative’). For this purpose, bioassays using mussel larvae (Mytilus galloprovincialis¸ target species) and the copepod Acartia tonsa (non-target species) were carried out. The measured endpoints included survival and settlement for mussels, and survival, fecundity and egg hatching success for copepods. Animals were exposed to seawater containing the lixiviated compounds from a painted PVC plate weathered for 24 hours (PPT, painted plate test). Additionally, animals were also exposed to the active components of each paint (CT, compound test). Mortality bioassays were carried out for 72 hours in cell culture plates using different concentrations. Mussel larvae settlement success was tested using individual chambers under flow-through conditions with a painted plate as substrate. Finally, fecundity and hatching success were assessed using adult female copepods exposed to different sublethal concentrations through PPTs for 7 days and a recovery period of 3 days. Preliminary results of mortality assays by PPTs show significant differences between the two paints, being more toxic the traditional paint. Furthermore, adult copepods appear to be more sensitive than mussel larvae, having a LC50 of 12.88 % after 24 hours compared to a LC50 of 67.46 % of the later ones. Regarding the alternative coating, there were no significant responses of any of the organisms. These initial tests pointed out to a higher toxicity of the traditional paints and higher sensitivity of the non-target species, whilst the alternative coating appears to be a non-toxic option. Funded by Basque Government (grant to consolidated groups IT1302-19 and pre-doctoral grant to MS).

Keywords: Antifouling; Bioassay; Toxicity

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