Approved Abstracts

Biochar from waste of the fungiculture production for treatment of water contaminated with heavy metal



Author(s): RAQUEL ANDRADE LEITE VIEIRA; DENISE GROTTO; ANGELA FAUSTINO JOZALA; THAISA BORIM PICKLER; Batista BL; Pereira RM;
Presenter: Raquel Andrade Leite Vieira

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that damage children‘s health and impair their cognitive development, and increase risk of cardiovascular death and kidney damage in adults. Currently, the treatments for Pb remove include ionic exchange, chemical precipitation, and adsorption. Biochar is an adsorbent produced by pyrolysis method, using derived from organic matrix, that can adsorb contaminants due to its large surface area, with porous structure, cation exchange capacity, and functional groups. An important source of organic matrix is the waste from fungiculture. The increase in mushroom production is linked to the increase in spent mushroom substrate (SMS), which have potential use as biochar for heavy metals removal. In this way, the aims of the study were to produce and characterize a biochar from SMS, and to analyze the removal efficiency for Pb at the batch and fixed-bed test. Firstly, SMS was dried and grounded (80 mesh). In the pyrolysis, 3 g of material was placed in crucibles inside the muffle furnace at 600ºC for 20 minutes. Biochar was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to analyze the superficial area, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), to determine the functional groups, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method to analysis the porous area, X-ray Diffraction (DRX) to identify the crystalline structures, and Zero Charge Point (ZCP) to determine the pH value in which the biochar is electrically neutral. The batch test used 0.5 g of biochar with 35 mL of Pb solution 250 ppm, maintained in agitation for 24h, at 25 ± 2 ºC. Samples were collected at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, 360, 760, and 1440 minutes. The fixed-bed test was performed using a chromatographic column that was filled with 2 g of biochar as a filtration medium. Pb solution 250 ppm was passed through the column at a flow rate of 3.4 mL/min. Sample were collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Both samples collected in the batch and fixed-bed test were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometer. Regarding characterization, FTIR showed aromatic structures in the biochar that can improve the adsorption of Pb by π-electrons. The peaks at 1000-1100 cm-1 are associated with C-O/C-O-C vibration, and the oxygen-containing functional group originated from cellulose. BET brought an area of 246 m2.g-1, and the SEM analysis showed porous size from 1.5 to 5.0 µm with defined and identifiable tubes with different geometry also blisters unveiling was detected both intrinsically and externally on the surface. ZCP was 9.56 ± 0.14, showing that a higher pH has a better removal capacity for the Pb, since that a negative surface can attract positive contaminants. The DRX peak with the highest intensities was at 2θ=26.7º and 20.9º, related to the presence of quartz, confirming the alkalinity of the biochar associated with the inorganic minerals, which can promote Pb removal by precipitation. The results of the batch test showed the high adsorption capacity of the biochar, where the final concentration after 10 minutes was 5.3 mg.L-1 and for 1440 minutes was 0.3 mg.L-1, the removal rate was respectively 97,8% and 99,8%. In the fixed-bed test the final concentration on the first minute was 0,012 mg.L-1 and for 240 minutes was 0,001 mg.L-1 which is almost 100% of removal rate in both times. In conclusion, the great Pb removal capacity is related to the high forms of porous in the biochar surface. SMS biochar is a promising alternative for Pb removal from water, and it can be applied as bioremediation for heavy metals.
Financial Support: FAPESP, CAPES, UNISO


Keywords: Biochar; Water treatment; Heavy Metal

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