Approved Abstracts

Assessing the effects of the cytostatic drug 5-Fluorouracil and a mixture of emerging contaminants on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis



Author(s): Gonçalves JM; Beckmann, C; Bebianno MJ;
Presenter: Joanna Melissa Gonçalves

The assessment of complex mixtures of environmental contaminants and their effects on marine biota requires attention from the scientific community. 5-Fluorouracil is a cytostatic group 3 anti-cancer drug (IARC) used in treatment for colon, pancreatic and breast cancer among others. In surface waters, 5FU has been predicted to be within the 5-160 ng/L range. In the presence of other pollutants, this pharmaceutical can interact and form mixtures of contaminants, such as adhering to plastics and interaction with metal nanoparticles. This study aimed to comprehend the effects of 5-Fluorouracil (5FU; 10 ng/L) and a mixture of emerging contaminants (Mix): silver nanoparticles (nAg; 20 nm; 10 µg/L), polystyrene nanoparticles (nPS; 50 nm; 10 µg/L) and 5FU (10 ng/L), in an in vivo (21 days) exposure of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. A multibiomarker approach namely the antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione – S – transferase (GST) activities), and oxidative damage (LPO) were the chosen biomarkers analysed in gills and digestive gland of mussels. In gills of mussels, after exposure to 5FU, SOD and CAT activities increased significantly along the course of time, whilst GPx activity was activated on the 21st day. On the other hand, GST activity was inhibited in the gills after 3 days. In mussels exposed to Mix, the antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly in gills after 3 days, maintaining high activity until the 14th day of exposure, whilst GST activity is inhibited after 3 days and activated on the 14th day of exposure. In the digestive gland, 5FU also led to a significant increase in SOD and CAT activity after 3 days, however a decrease pattern is observed on the remaining exposure days. GPx activity in digestive gland shows a similar pattern as the activity measured in gills, and GST activity is inhibited after 14 days. Following exposure to Mix, SOD and GPx activity increased significantly after 3 days, whilst CAT activity decreased significantly after 7 days, and GST activity increased after 21 days. Oxidative damage measured in either tissue after exposure to 5FU showed no significant differences encountered in both tissues. LPO levels increased in Mix-exposed gills after 3 days and decrease at 21 days, whereas in the digestive gland, an increase in LPO levels by 3.6-fold occurs on the 7th day, followed by a decrease after 21 days. Mussels were able to defend themselves from toxicity of 5FU, however not the same was found in Mix-exposed mussels. Therefore, mixtures of emerging contaminants are of incrementing concern, and more ecotoxicological studies should be carried out to evaluate the potential impacts of these mixtures.

Keywords: Cytostatic Drugs; Emerging Contaminant Mixtures; Oxidative stress and damage

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