Approved Abstracts

Screening of natural surface waters of the Almaty region of the Republic of Kazakhstan for toxic and mutagenic activity



Author(s): al-Farabi Kazakh National University; al-Farabi Kazakh National University; al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences;
Presenter: Anna Lovinskaya

Natural aquatic ecosystems are a habitat for many organisms, a source of drinking water, and a resource for human economic activity. However, in recent decades, natural surface waters have been subjected to intense anthropogenic pressure. Along with the physicochemical analysis of water, it is necessary to study the biological effects of exposure to all harmful agents present in the aquatic environment. When studying water bodies, an assessment of their genotoxicity and mutagenicity becomes a critical component. The simultaneous use of conventional physicochemical analysis and mutagenicity/genotoxicity analysis should be implemented in water quality monitoring programs. The simultaneous use of a battery of test objects and test systems can make it possible to assess the potential risk of water contamination for various forms of organisms. Based on the above, this research aimed to study the mutagenic, genotoxic and toxic activity of natural surface waters in the Almaty and Almaty region (Republic of Kazakhstan). Screening of natural surface waters of 53 water bodies was carried out, including springs, rivers, and lakes. The following methods were used in the research: physicochemical analysis (pH, temperature, oxidation-redox potential, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen in water), atomic absorption spectrometry, bioluminescence test (lux-test), Allium-test chromosome aberration test (Hordeum vulgare, Mus musculus), embryotoxicity test (Danio rerio, Drosophila melanogaster), the sex-linked recessive lethal test (Drosophila melanogaster), Comet assay, biochemical analysis (Mus musculus). Physicochemical analysis revealed an excess of MPC for heavy metals in the water of all studied sources. The bioluminescence test identified water sources with DNA tropic effects and oxidative stress. Most studied water samples (80%) were highly toxic, significantly reducing the bioluminescent response of the pRecA, pColD, pKatG, pSoxS, pXen7 biosensors. The plant test objects Allium cepa and Hordeum vulgare revealed the toxicity and mutagenicity of water in most water bodies. Most studied water bodies have cytotoxic (decrease in the mitotic index) and mutagenic (statistically significant level of structural and genomic mutations) activity. Bio-testing natural water using Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, and Mus musculus revealed its toxic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, and genotoxic activity. The most common disorder in Danio rerio embryos, characteristic of all the studied water objects, was the curvature of the spinal cord (scoliosis). In laboratory mice, orally receiving water from the Nurly-Arasan hot spring, the Shilik, Tsyganka, Kurty, Esik, Ile, Karatal and Shamalgan rivers, Lake Esik, Pervomaisky ponds, Kurty and Kapshagai reservoirs, the frequencies structural and genomic mutations in bone marrow cells, single-strand DNA breaks in the cells of the liver, kidneys, spleen, and bone marrow, lipid peroxidation products (lipid hydroperoxide and malondialdehyde) statistically significantly increased in comparison with intact animals. The results obtained indicate the presence in the water of the studied objects of potential mutagens that can harm the genetic material of living organisms. Using the WinPepi program based on experiments on various test systems and test objects, the possible genetic risk of manifestation of disturbances caused by exposure to contaminated surface water was calculated. Comparative analysis of the level of toxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic activity made it possible to rank the studied water bodies. This work was supported by funding through the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant No. AP05130546, A.V. Lovinskaya is the Project supervisor).

Keywords: chromosome aberration; embryotoxicity; genotoxicity

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